The Himalayan chain that stretches from Indus to Bhramaputra valley is a unique storehouse of precious biotic and abiotic reserves (Sahu 1986). It is not only mammoth of cultural symbol but also an important determinant in shaping the economy, milieu and climate (Pant 1980). The Indian Himalayan region endows with bounties of natural and cultural resources evolved and preserved through process of civilization, and contain some of the most restricted and threatened ecological systems on earth (Myers et al. 2000). Most of the spectacular and rugged mountain range of the Himalaya is biologically unexplored, thus the biological diversity of entire Himalaya is not properly known. The Himalaya offers an array of forest types with diversity in forest produce such as medicine, vegetables, nuts, wild edible fruits and decorative as non-timber forest products (NTFPs) from time immemorial. The folk medicinal practices are quite common among the ethno-cultural groups of this region (Biswas 1956). The knowledge of flora and fauna and their value as NTFP is rich among the ethnic groups of this region. During the course of human civilization nearly 3000 plants species have been used as food but only about 150 species have been cultivated (NRC 1982) and less that 10 plant species are meeting over 90% of the world food demand (Wilkes 1981). Many such food resources and valuable plants are still to be explored (Mohan Ram, 2000). In Sikkim alone, about 175 wild edible plants are available and some of them have high potential for their use as food (Sundriyal & Rai 1996, Sundriyal 1999). But many of these species are threatened and in the verge of extinction due to over extraction (Rai et al. 2000) Therefore, exploration and listing of plants and animals with their ethnobiological value are important for knowing and evaluating human-plant relationship, potential for their use in day-to-day life and for proper management (Alcorn 1981a,b; Bye 1979). The present study is based on the extensive survey of NTFPs and their regular monitoring undertaken by the G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Sikkim Unit as a part of Sikkim Biodiversity and Ecotourism Project.
[[Materials and methods]]
Yuksam-Dzongri trekking corridor (26 km long) encompasses from 1780 m to 4000 m amsl. The trail passes through Sachen, Bakhim and Tshoka in the southwestern part of Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (KBR) in Sikkim, India. Yuksam is a trailhead for this corridor and leads through Tshoka, Dzongri, Thangsing to the Khangchendzonga Base Camp and Gocha La in West Sikkim. Yuksam (1780 m) has 11 settlements with 274 households comprising 1573 number of individuals. One settlement with 8 households resides inside the Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (KBR) at Tshoka (3000 m) along the trail. (Figure1). The area is rich and pristine in its forests resources and treasured with innumerable non timber forest products (Chettri 2000). Different ethnic groups like Subbas, Bhutias, Lepchas, Nepalis and Tibetan Refugees live at the buffer area of the Reserve. NTFPs available in these forests are important alternative to livihood of the local communities. They consist of house construction materials, edible fruits and vegetables, medicinal plants, fiber, broom grass and natural decorative. Due to the mountainous terrain and difficulties in communication, communities living in the area uses large number of plants as foods, vegetables, ingredients for house construction and medicines to cure serious diseases, sprains, cuts and fractures since ancient time. Disturbances such as firewood extraction, fodder lopping and cattle grazing have increased during the last two decades due to growth in tourism and rise in population that has affected natural population of these NTFPs. The present study is an attempt to highlight the traditional knowledge on use of NTFPs and reflect their potentials in local economy.
The methods employed in this study were designed with the purpose of providing baseline information on the use of plants species in the local systems and their status in the study area. Extensive household level surveys were conducted in 14 villages with structured (preset formats) with queries on names of the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) used in their daily life. In each village at least the 10% of the total households were covered. Special emphasis was also given for survey in the local hats (markets) for their market prices. This information was then crosschecked through informal but focus group discussion with the communities, specially the elders and local traditional medicine practitioners. The final list of species was then used in the field surveys to crosscheck their altitudinal distribution and status. The altitudinal distribution of the enlisted species and their population were recorded from systematic survey as part of the other studies made in the same study area (see Singh 2000; Chettri et al. 2002; Chettri et al. 2005)
Results and discussion]]
Ninety-four species of NTFPs were recorded from the survey and crosschecked their distribution and status in the study area. All 94 species were categorized into five major categories. Eight species were found to use for construction purposes; 42 species as wild edibles; 31 species as medicinal purpose, eight species as decorative and five species as fiber and incense (see Appendix). Among these, above 50% were found marketed and majority of them were wild edibles and medicinal herbs.
Construction and local handicrafts
Bamboos (Dendrocalamus spp) were widely used by the local inhabitants for construction of houses, bridges and fences other that timber and stone. In Yuksam and Khecheopalri Watershed, there are more than eight varieties of bamboos available. Most of the bamboos are cultivated except a few (Arundanaria intermedia, A. racemosa, Cephalostachium sp.) and some bamboos (A. hookerian, Bambusa nutans) though cultivated by the local people are also found in community as well as government forests. These bamboos are found scattered in steep slopes of community forests in lower elevations and in reserve forests at higher reaches ranging from 1700 m to 2750m. The economic importance of bamboo is very high as they are widely used in different purposes. Leaves are used as excellent fodder for livestock, stems are extensively used for house construction, handicraft preparation (making mats, baskets, decorative pieces) and young shoots are used as vegetables or used in preparation of pickles.
Edible fruits and other produce
Wild edible plants that are found in the forests and in the private lands offer a variety of fruits to the local people as nutritional diet. These fruits are also a good source of fruit for wildlife and birds. Some of the species such as Rhus semialata, Litsae citrata and Juglan regia happens to be a good medicinal value. The leaves of Machilus edulis, M. odoratissima, Basia butyracea and Bauhinia variagata offer a good fodder for cattle. Machilus edulis, M. odoratissima have also been seen to rehabilitate drier rocky hilly slopes. There are a number of trees in forests, whose young shoots (Pentapanax leschenaultii), leaves (Girardinia palmate, Urtica dioica)) and flowers (Tupistra nutans) are eaten as vegetables or made pickles. Some of them are also source of medicines that are widely used by the local practitioners. About seven edible varieties of mushrooms were recorded from the area and most of them are found on naturally dead woods during the monsoon season. These mushrooms form a part of delicacies in the food of local people, and are also a good source of nutrition.
There are varieties of Diplazium spp. (wild ferns) used as vegetables. These species are mostly found in moist and shady places and available in local market during the monsoon seasons. Many local people even directly collect them from the forest and use them as vegetable. Yuksam-Dzongri forests have a number of dioscoreas, which provide food to people through their yams. Among them, only one species Dioscorea sp (Ban Tarul) is available in the private forest of some villages. It is most esteemed among wild yams but difficult to dig. However, pits are dug up to 1.2 m deep to extract the tuber.
About 31 species of widely used medicinal plants were recorded from Yuksam, Tshoka, Dzongri and Khecheopalri area. Artemesia vulgaris, Eupatorium adenophorum and Hydrocotyle asiatica are widely used for different purposes but are not marketed. On the other hand, Aconitum sp, Berginia ligulata, Heracleum nepalense, Litsae citrata, Oroxylum indicum are openly marketed in the local markets. Picrorhiza kurrooa, Piper longum, Orchis latifolia, Rubia cordifolia are even exported to other states through local agents. Most of these species are also use by local practitioner (Bijuwa and Baidya) as herbal medicines. These plants are found in open areas and some in bushy areas of the forests along the altitudinal range of 1600 to 4500 m. At present, they are found in small quantity due to over exploitation in the past.
Natural forests are source of varieties of attractive natural plants which are used by locals as decorative. Roots of plants, dry flowers, capsules, dry mushrooms, cones of conifers, leaves of fern, fern shoots and seeds of different plant form the decorative of all designs and types. In Yuksam and Khecheopalri more than eight types of such decorative are found, which are mostly used for only local purposes. Dried Anophalis contorta, A. triplinervis and Lycopodium clavatum are widely used as decorative in different occasions whereas Pollinium mollis and Raphidophora sp are used as decorative in houses. Cones of Pinus longifolia, Abies densa and Tsuga dumosa are also found to be use as decorative in different forms.
Broom and fiber plants
Broom grass is of great importance in the mountainous region as it provides good quality fodder, fuel, broomsticks and also acts as a soil stabilizer. Recently government had supported its extension through social forestry scheme and the local people are willing to plant this grass as cash crop for broomstick. This grass grow in the sub-tropical Himalayas from plains to 2000 m altitude and are extensively planted in the hills specially in wasteland and also as inter-cropping in agroforestry systems or on the edges of terraces. Some villagers in Yuksam cultivated Amliso (Thysanolaena maxima) since last couple of years in some small areas with government incentives. The inflorescence of the broom grass produces the soft broom for cleaning floors. The sticks are used as firewood after drying and the leaves are good fodder. Argeli (Edgeworthia gardeneri) and Lokta (Daphne cannabina) are widely used by locals for making fibers, papers and also for tying cattle.
In Yuksam, Tshoka, Dzongri and Khecheopalri, a considerable number of families use these NTFPs as food, medicine and house construction. These practices play a major role in the local economy of the people and many of these species are use as substituted for the commercial timber, medicine and even food and vegetables. Some of the family members are also involved in selling these items at local markets as a part of their livelihood. Wide variety of edible fruits, vegetables and berries are used as NTFP. These variations have provided additional charm in the biological diversity of the area. Traditional systems of medicine notably Aurvedic and Tibetan practices from NTFPs are extensively used in the day-to-day life by the people in Sikkim Himalaya (Rai & Sharma 1994). A large number of such plants are collected from the wild even from the protected areas. The exploitation of NTFPs from the Yuksam-Dzongri trekking corridor and Khecheopalri Watershed contribute to the biotic impoverishment of the forest through extraction activities, possibly because extractors do not leave enough seed in the forest for further propagation. Field survey revealed that a wide variety of medicinal plants, incense and decorative are collected from higher elevation, which are still in fragile condition. It was also noted that the use of these NTFPs have decreased drastically due to un-availability of resources. The distributions of about 10% of the total species are quite sparse showing rarity (Appendix ).
NTFP collecting activities appear to be compatible with conservation only when supported by careful resource management regulations with wide local community participation. Moreover, human pressure on natural resources like firewood, fodder, cattle grazing, tourism and infrastructure development have been increasing since last few decades, resulting threats to the fragile ecosystems of the region (Rai & Sundriyal 1997, Chettri et al 2002). Unless immediate decisive steps are taken to counter the effects of habitat degradation in the remaining wilderness areas, pragmatic assumption foretell that much of the valuable resources will be lost within a few decades. Poor socio-economic condition of people is directly causing to loss of the valuable resources. Collection of NTFPs such as fruits, nuts, oils, resins and medicinal plants in a sustainable manner is an integrated process for development and conservation (Hall & Bawa 1993). But a real economic potential of extractive activities and their compatibility with conservation of biodiversity should be properly known (Sundriyal & Sundriyal 2001). Therefore, participatory planning with the local people for area specific development and provisions for economic incentives to them seems to be a promising effort for conservation of these valuable resources. Castanopsis spp., Machilus edulis, etc. are all nutritious fruits that can be use as local product. Young shoots (tama) from Dendrocalamus spp. Arundanaria spp. for preparation of pickles, Diplazium and wild mushroom as vegetables have high potential as a part of the menu for the tourists. The area possesses high potential in micro enterprises development for medicinal plants. Market survey revealed that Jatamasi (Nardostachys jatamasi), Kutki (Picrorhiza kurrooa), Chirata (Swertia chirata) and Panch Aunlay (Orchis latifolia) have high potential for commercialization. Broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima), Bamboo (Dedrocalamus spp, Bambusa spp, Arundanaria spp) cultivations are other means to support local handicraft production that brings economy vis a vis control soil erosion. These micro enterprises development can certainly boosts the economy of people if value addition is done to them as being done to some wild plants in other part of the Himalaya (Dhyani & Khali 1993, Maikhuri et al. 1994). However, detailed study of regeneration status and potential in the natural habitat and extraction pressure can bring in understanding in management options.
The authors are thankful to the Director, G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, and The Mountain Institute, USA for facilities. This research was supported under Sikkim Biodiversity and Ecotourism Project, which received grant from the Biodiversity Conservation Network funded by USAID. IDRC-Canada also provided financial support to Nakul Chettri. Facilities provided by ICIMOD are highly acknowledged.
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[[Appendix]] List of NTFPs with their distribution, status market and uses that were recorded from fringe villages of Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (A = abundant, C = common, D = common but declining, R = rare, MR = marketable, NM = non-marketable, NA = data not available)
|Species||Vernacular name||Distribution (m)||Marketable/non marketable||Market rate (Rs)||Uses||Status||Availability|
|Construction and local handicrafts|
|Arundinaria hookeriana Munro||Pareng||1200-2100||MR||40 per bundle Tama 10-15 per kg||Mats, house construction, baskets, young shoots as vegetables etc.||D||Whole year|
|Arundinaria intermedia Munro||Tite nigalo||1200-2100||MR||40 per bundle Tama 10-15 per kg||Mats, baskets, house construction etc.||C||Whole year|
|Arundinaria malling Gamble||Maling||1850-2750||MR||40 per bundle||Mats, baskets, fencing, walking sticks, flute etc.||C||Whole year|
|Bambusa nutans Gamble||Mala bans||300-1550||MR||30/individual||House construction, support for prayer flags by Buddhist||D||Whole year|
|Cephalostachium sp.||Gopey bans||600-2400||NR||30/individual||Fodder, bow and arrow preparation, flutes and straw for drinking local beer.||R||Whole year|
|Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees & Arn. Ex Munro||Choya bans||Upto 1730||MR||30/individual Tama 10-15 per kg||Water pipes, water vessels, young shoots as vegetables, house construction, local handicrafts, fodder for cattle etc.||C||Whole year|
|Dendrocalamus hookeri Munro||Chilley bans||Upto 1750||MR||30/individual||House construction, fencings, baskets, etc.||C||Whole year|
|Dendrocalamus sikkimensis Gamble||Bhalu bans||Upto 1800||MR||30/individual||Water vessel, house construction, local handicrafts etc.||R||Whole year|
|Edible fruits and other product|
|Agapetes serpens (White) Sleumer||Bandare khorsane||1500-2600||NM||Flowers are eaten along with the juice in them||A||February-June|
|Agaricus silvaticus||Kalunge chew||Upto 1300||MR||40 per kg||Used as vegetables.||C||April-September|
|Allium wallichii Kunth.||Jungli piyaj||2200-4000||NM||Edible and aromatic||R||June-October|
|Bassia butyracea Roxb.||Chewri||1200-1775||MR||2 per 5 pieces||
Fruits edible, oil is extracted from thee seeds and used.
Leaves are good fodder.
|Bauhinia variegata L.||Kiorala||Upto 600||NM||Flowers are eaten as curry, good fodder.||R||March-April|
|Castanopsis hystrix Miq.||Patle katus||1800-2400||MR||15 per kg||Fruits edible, fuelwood, leaves are good ingredients for composts.||A||Feb-April|
|Castanopsis tribuloides (Smith) A.DC.||Musre katus||1700-2300||MR||60 per kg||Fruits edible, fuelwood, leaves are good ingredients for composts.||C||Feb-April|
|Cinnamomum impressinervium Meissn.||Sisi||1220-1830||NR||Seeds edible||A||Whole year|
|Citrullus colocenthus Schrad.||Indrenni||Upto 1900||MR||5 per piece||Fruits edible||D||Jan-March|
|Dioscorea bulbifera Br.||Ban tarul||Upto 2000||MR||20 per kg||Used as food.||C||Jan-Feb|
|Diplazium sp.||Sauney ningro||Upto 2000||MR||5 per bundle||Used as vegetables.||C||May-July|
|Elaeocarpus lanceafolius Roxb.||Bhadrase||1830-2450||MR||18 per kg||Fruits edible||D||April-June|
|Evodia fraxinifolia Hk.f.||Khanakpa||1200-2100||NM||Fruits used as pickles and as medicine for dysentery||C||Aug-Sep|
|Ficus infectoria L.||Kabra||Upto 1700||NM||Shoots are edible, good fodder.||C||Feb-March|
|Myrica gale L.||Kaphal||Upto 1725||MR||NA||Fruits edible, gums and resins are extracted for local use.||R||July-Sep|
|Girardinia palmate Gand.||Bhangre sisnu||1000-2500||MR||5 per bundle||Young leaves and shoots use as substitute for dal which are good for blood pressure patients.||A||July-Sep|
|Gaultheria trichophyla Royle||2700-4500||NM||Fruits are eaten by children||A||May-July|
|Pentapanax leschenaultii Seem.||Chinde||1750-3000||MR||10 per kg||Young shots edible, used as fodder.||D||March-April|
|Juglans regia L.||Okhar||1000-2000||MR||2 per piece||Fruit edible, bark-anthelminthic and detergent, leaves- astringent and tonic, oil of kernel cures skin diseases etc.||D||April-Sep|
|Urtica dioica L.||Patle sisnu||Upto 2700||MR||8 per bundle||Young leaves and shoots use as substitute for dal which are good for blood pressure patients.||A||May-Aug|
|Machilus edulis King.||Lapche kawla||1220-2400||MR||1 per piece||Fruits edible, leaves are good fodder.||C||Nov-Dec|
|Machilus odoratissima (Nees) Kosterm||Lalikaulo||1500-2150||NM||Fruits edible, leaves are good fodder.||C||Nov-Dec|
|Mahonia sikkimensis Takeda.||Chutro||1300-2700||NM||Berries edible||A||July-Aug|
|Pleurotus sp.||Chamrey||NA||NM||Used as vegetables.||C||NA|
|Pleurotus sp.||Kanney chew||1500-2450||MR||50 per kg||Used as vegetables.||C||Julu-Aug|
|Prunus nepaulensis (Seringe) Steud.||Arupate||1800-above||NM||Fruits edible, fairly good fodder and fuelwood.||C||March-Aug|
|Pyrularia edulis A DC.||Amphi||600-1800||MR||NA||Fruits edible, posses wax in kernel and were use this wax for lighting.||D||NA|
|Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. Ex D. Don||Mehel||800-2400||MR||10 per kg||Fruit extracts used for curing blood dysentery||D||Nov-Dec|
|Quercus sp.||Phalant||1850-2700||NM||Acorns are good food for beer, fuelwood etc.||A||March-May|
|Quercus sp.||Sungure katus||1830-3000||NM||Nuts edible, bark and acorns used as astringent||D||March-May|
|Rhus semialata Murr.||Bhakimlo||900-1850||MR||NA||Seeds use as medicine dysentery||A||July-Aug|
|Rubus ellipticus Smith.||Aselu||1000-2200||MR||40 per kg||Fruits edible||A||March-May|
|Rubus hypargyrus Edgew.||Kalo aselu||MR||40 per kg||Fruits edible||C||March-May|
|Spondias axillaries Roxb.||Lapsi||300-1400||MR||20 per kg||Fruits edible, pickles are also prepared.||D||May-Oct|
|Symplocos theifolia D.Don||Kharanay||1800-3000||NM||In the past, people use to extract oil from the seeds for cooking.||A||July-Aug|
|Tupistra nutans Wall.||Nakima||1800-3000||MR||60 per kg||Flower are taken as curry||D||Sep-Oct|
|Utica dioica L.||Gharia sisnu||1000-2500||MR||5 per bundle||Dried plants are use to prepare paste and applied on minor fractures. Leaves and shoots use as substitute for dal.||A||April-July|
|Kali ningro||Above 1750||NM||Used dysentery.||C||May-Sep|
|Jhari chew||1800-2000||NM||Used as vegetables.||C||May-Sep|
|Hieun chew||Above 2500||NM||Used as vegetables.||C||May-Sep|
|Katuse chew||Upto 1800||NM||Used as vegetables.||C||May-Sep|
|Kalamen uneu||1650-2450||NM||Used as vegetables.||C||May-Sep|
|Abies densa Griffith ex R. Parker||Gobrey salla||2550-3700||NM||Leaf extracts use in repeated doses for asthma, bronchitis and stomach trouble.||A||Whole year|
|Aconitum ferox Wall.||Bikhuma||2100-4000||MR||1350/kg||High medicinal value, use in diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, diabetes,||D||July-Sep|
|Acorus calamus Linn.||Bonjho||1000-2000||MR||NA||Paste prepared from rhizome used in skin diseases, powder taken orally for cough, malaria and asthma||D||Whole year|
|Artemisia vulgaris Linn.||Titepate||800-2000||NM||Use in different medication as deobstruent, antispasmodic, obstructed menses and hysteria.||A||Whole year|
|Astilbe rivularis Ham.||Buro okhati||1200-2100||MR||NA||Rhizomes chewed as areca nut and used as pain relief.||D||July-Aug|
|Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Stenb.||Pakhan bet||Upto 3000||MR||75 per kg||Roots use in analgesic, tridosha, piles, heart diseases, spleen enlargement and many other diseases.||D||Whole year|
|Bergenia purpurascens (Hook. F. & Thoms.) Engl.||Khokim||3400-4200||NM||Dried roots use in as substitute for tea and believe to give relief from body ache.|
|Clematis buchananiana DC.||Pinasay lahara||1800-2800||NM||Fresh roots are mashed and the effluvium is drawn through nose to cure sinusitis and nose-blocks.||D||Whole year|
|Dichroa febrifuga Lour.||Basak||900-2400||NM||Dried leaves orally taken in fever||C||July-Aug|
|Drymaria cordata Wild.||Abijalo||1000-2000||NM||Used in nose dysentery.||C||Whole year|
|Eupatorium canabinum Linn.||Banmara, kalijhar||1000-2000||NM||Crushed juice from leaves are applied in cuts and bleeding spots immediately||A||Whole year|
|Heracleum nepalense D.Don||Chimphing||1550-3600||MR||3 per packet||Fruits are used as pickles, used as anti-typhoid, nausea and vomiting||D||Aug-Oct|
|Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn.||Golpatta||1300-2000||NM||Fresh leaves are crushed and administered orally to relieve blood pressure and throat pain.||C||Whole year|
|Holboellia latifolia Wallich.||2400-3200||NM||NA||Fruits edible, stem used to make bangles, which are believe to give relief from orthopedic problems.||R||Whole year|
|Kaempfera rotunda Linn.||Bhuin champa||1300-2000||MR||NA||Tubers used as poultice in fracture, healing fresh woods and removes coagulated bloods from the body.||R||NA|
|Litsae citrata Bl||Siltimur||Upto-2700||MR||NA||Dried fruits are used as medicine for nausea and giddiness, fresh fruits used as pickles.||D||Aug-Sep|
|Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo||Panch aunle||3000-4000||MR||80/kg||Paste made out of the tubers is applied over cuts and bruises. It is also used orally for body ache||R||Aug-Sep|
|Oroxylum indicum Vent.||Totala||Upto 1000||MR||10 per garland||Flower edible, root bark improves appetite, use in vomiting, asthma, bronchitis etc.||R||Aug-Dec|
|Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.||Kutki||3000-5000||MR||210/kg||Dried roots are used orally in malarial fever. It is also used as cathartic, purgative and dyspepsia.||D||Whole year|
|Piper longum Linn.||Pipla||Upto 1700||MR||60 per kg||Roots use in anthelminthic, improves appetite, abdominal pain. Fruits use for anti-diarrhoeatic, anti-dysenteric, piles, leprosy etc.||C||Whole year|
|Plantago sp.||Isabgol||Upto 1750||NM||Plant use as medicine for rheumatism, roots as astringent and fever, and seed in dysentery.||C||Whole year|
|Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham ex D.Don||Marcha||600-1800||MR||NA||Roots use for preparation of yeasts.||D||NA|
|Rheum australe D.Don||Padamchal||3600-4500||MR||Dried roots use as tea.||D||July-Sep|
|Rheum nobile Hook.f.& Thoms.||Kenjo||3600-4500||NM||60/kg||Whole plant is eaten, used as pickles, have medicinal value.||R||July-Sep|
|Rhododendron arboreum Smith||Lali guras||1500-3300||NM||Dried flowers use for curing dysentery||A||Jan-March|
|Rubia manjith Roxb. Ex Fleming||Majhito||1000-2000||MR||650 per ton||Color extracts are used in dying. Roots have medicinal value.||C||Whole year|
|Rumex nepalensis Sprengel||Halhalay||1800-3000||NM||Dried root is use in preparation of paste and taken orally in hepatistis. It is also applied during loss of hairs.||A||Whole year|
|Solanum sp.||Jungli bihin||Upto 1800||NM||Root use in bronchitis, asthma, fever, pains. Piles etc. Fruits increase appetite and good for heart diseases and fever. Fruits are burnt and use its smoke for relief from toothache.||C||Whole year|
|Swertia chirata Ham.||Chirato||1225-3000||MR||20-30/kg||Medicinal use for anthelmintic, antipyretic, antiperiodic, laxative, leucoderma, inflammation, ulcer, asthma piles etc.||D||May-Oct|
|Viscum articulatum Burn.f.||Harchur||300-2000||MR||80 per kg||Dried plants are use to prepare paste and applied on minor fractures.||R||Whole year|
|Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.||Boke timur||Upto-2250||MR||40 per kg||Medicine for ear diseases, headache, leucoderma, asthma and good appetizer||D||May-Sep|
|Abies densa Griffith ex R. Parker||Gobre salla||2800-4000||NM||Cones are used as decorative||April-May|
|Anaphalis sp.||Bukiphul||1700-2750||NM||Dried flowers are decorative and also used for preparation of pillow||A||July-Sep|
|Anaphalis sp.||Bukiphul||1850-2750||NM||Dried flowers are decorative and also used for preparation of pillow.||A||July-Sep|
|Pinus longifolia Roxb.||Salla||500-2000||NM||Cones are used as decorative||Feb-April|
|Lycopodeum sp.||Nagbelli||1850-2750||NM||Entire plant is decorative and pollen is used as gunpowder.||C||Whole year|
|Pollinia mollis (Griseb.) Hack.||Memkesh||1550-2450||NM||Flowers spikes are decorative||R||Whole year|
|Raphidophora sp.||Kanchirna||Upto-2000||NM||Planted as decorative, leaves good fodder, stems used as feed for pig and cattle.||A||Whole year|
|Tsuga dumosa (D Don) Eichler||2100-3500||NM||Cones are used as decorative||May-June|
|Fiber, broom and incense species|
|Daphne cannabina var. bholua (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Keissl.||Kagatay||1850-3000||MR||NA||Bark is used as ropes but also have potential for preparation of paper.||C||Whole year|
|Edgeworthia gardneri (Wall.) Meisner||Argeli||Upto 1850||MR||NA||Bark is used for preparation of paper, making ropes and even tying cattle.||C||Whole year|
|Thysanolaena maxima Kuntze.||Amliso||Upto-2000||MR||Broom 1000 per ton.||Broom are prepared from the inflorescence,, fodder, soil binder and fuelwood after drying the sticks.||A||Whole year|
|Juniperus recurva Buch-Ham. ex D. Don||Bhairun patay||3600 above||MR||NA||Local Buddhist uses leaves as incense.||C||Whole year|
|Rhododendron setosum D. Don.||Sunpatay||3600 above||MR||NA||Local Buddhist uses leaves as incense.||C||Whole year|